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              What is the history of Doulton® and British Berkefeld® Water Filters?

    John Doulton founded his first pottery in 1815.  As early as 1827, John's son, Henry Doulton developed ceramic filters for removing harmful bacteria from drinking water.  The Thames river was heavily contaminated with raw sewage; cholera and typhoid epidemics were rampant.

    In 1835, Queen Victoria commissioned Doulton to produce a water filter for the Royal household.
      Doulton created a gravity fed filtration system that used a ceramic filter.

    With Pasteur's advancement in microbiology, Doulton's Research and Development department created micro-porous ceramic cartridges capable of removing harmful bacteria with better than 99% efficiency.

    The Doulton® water filter has been continuously manufactured in the UK for over 170 years. Today, it is in daily use worldwide in over 150 countries.
      

    T
    he Doulton® and British Berkefeld® name is the preferred choice for water purification products in worldwide locations where outbreaks of illness are associated with unreliable water supplies.  The Doulton® and British Berkefeld® water filters have truly stood the test of time.

     

    Do I need a water filter?

    It may seem not, if you are in a country with very reliable source of municipal water.  
    Yet, do we boil the water before we drink it?  Many of us do.
    Why?  To be safe.
    With Doulton®'s filtered water, there is no need to boil tap water before drinking.  Boiling tap water can concentrate any presence of insecticide, chlorine and heavy metals.

    Some people think that chlorine is good for the body.  Is it?

    No, a small amount of floride (not chlorine) is added to strengthen the teeth.  But chlorine is a low strength poison which is used to kill bacteria.  Chlorine does not have any health benefits.

    Some studies show that chlorine reacts with humic acids and other natural organic compounds present in water, which can lead to the formation of trihalomethanes (THM), a group of carcinogenic chemicals.

    Doulton® SuperSterasyl & Ultracarb water purifiers reduce both the chlorine and trihalomethanes from drinking water.  Doulton®'s filters produce clean, safe, drinking water that is purer, tastes better, and brings out the flavour of home-brewed drinks.

     

    What is the impact of purer drinking water?

    Water is vital for good health - our lives depend on it.
    70% of our body is made up of water.

    There is no magic to purer drinking water.

    Drinking purer water can lead to better health.
    Sensitive skin, wounds and cuts are better washed with purer water.
    Home-brewed drinks and soups taste better with purer water.
    Vegetables and fruits stay fresher when rinsed with purer water.
    Meats and fish keep better for cooking when washed with purer water.
    Flowers recover better with purer water.
    Fresh-water aquarium fish prefer purer water>
    The fact is that purer water has less bacterial growth.

    Water pollutants are increasing worldwide.  An alarming component is the cancer-causing group of trihalomethanes.  Lack of clean water causes many diseases. Natural contaminants in unfiltered water may cause a sensitive body to hit the tolerance level for histamines, and increase the prospensity to allergic reactions when exposed to other chemicals.
    The fact is that reliably manufactured water filters produce purer water, and,
    drinking a healthy amount of purer water can detoxify.

     

    What should I look out for when choosing a drinking water purifier?

    • The filter elements should not breed bacteria.  Different parts of the filter system should not breed mould or fungus over time.  Make sure the ceramic filter element contains silver, so that there is no colonization of harmful bacteria within the filter itself.
    • Make sure you are not given an imitation fake product.  The Doulton® brand is so famous that there are now fake/counterfeit imitation 'Doulton®' filters put out in the market. Counterfeits are dangerous because the silver content leaches out, and the ceramic pore size is too large, such that these imitation ceramic candles completely fail the water tests.
    • Check for written statements of quality standards passed.  Ensure specific standards are not misrepresented with purported health benefits.  Quality standards in drinking water filters is very important.  It is critical when choosing a filter, to make sure that the filter meets international standards in filtration efficiency.  Ask for written confirmation of standards clearance.  Otherwise, the filter efficiency can be compromised, and depending on the cleanliness of the original source of water, the filtered water may be unsafe for drinking.   
      Products that have received 'NSF' certification are listed on
      www.nsf.org/business/search_listings [type in the brand name, e.g. 'Doulton', in the bottom box marked 'Search by Manufacturer].  ('NSF' is the National Sanitation Foundation based in the USA, and it is like the equivalent of the FDA for stringent water tests and standards.  The FDA enforces standards for food and pharmaceuticals, while the NSF enforces standards for water).
    • Check that the filter is 'durable' and will continue to perform at the stringent levels throughout its rated life (particularly important for bacteria reduction claims).  All filters will perform well for the 1st few hundred litres of water.  Check that filters continue to perform at its guaranteed filtration levels consistently  for over 2000 litres, over 5000 litres, over 10, 000 litres.  Check that filters have been tested under 'worse case' test conditions.  Poor quality filters can appear to perform well at low water pressures and low contaminant challenges.
    • Check that connections, tubings and housing can withstand various challenges of contaminated water, which varies from country to country.  Tubings should be made of high quality materials that do not deteriorate with high chlorine or chemical levels.
    • Check that the housing can withstand water pressure so that it meets safety standards and will not explode or have water leaks.  Note that the Doulton® housing has been technologically designed and manufactured to withstand high water pressure.
    • The fact is that technological design and quality manufacturing of both the filter element as well as the housing, are critical to the lifespan, the filtration integrity and the continuous performance of the drinking water purifier.

     

    Is a 6-element system better than a 1-element system?

    Not neccessarily.

    • In Arkwater.com's Doulton® system, the multiple filter media are incorporated into a single All-in-One easy-to-maintain filter element candle.
    • In other 2-6 filter media systems, each filter media fails at different times and it is difficult to remember when to change each element.  Also, maintenance is a bit more complex. With the Doulton®, you know when to clean because the water-flow slows down; easy for a child to do.
    • If the Doulton® filter element is finished - the replacement is a 1-minute job.
    • Unlike many other filters, Doulton®'s All-in-One filter is specially manufactured to prevent harmful bacteria or mould from growing within the filter media.
    • And price-wise, it depends what you are looking for:
      ...Health promises, Or, normal safe, clean, purer, healthy drinking water.
    • Some other 2-6 filter media systems add alkalinity to drinking water.  Is this a good thing?

      Alkaline water at high pH levels may be suitable for some patients with certain medical conditions.  However, a healthy person should think carefully before drinking water to which more alkalinity has been artificially added.

     

    How can the Doulton®'s 1-element filter perform so many functions?

    •       Pore size & concentration:  
      Micro porous depth filtration equivalent: 0.2 micron.
      Over 80,000 overlapping pores make up each element.
      Filtration Performance: >98% at .2 microns, >99.7% at .3 microns, >99.9% at .5 microns.  Removes >99.99% of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, E. Coli, Vibro Cholerae, Salmonella, Dysenteria.  Toxicological extraction is commonly the most difficult area of the NSF testing standards to satisfy.  This shows that the filter does not re-contaminate the water with harmful bacteria or other undesirable elements.  Ceramic filters are notorious for recontaminating the water with undesirable elements such as Arsenic and Antimony.  The ceramic shell of our Doulton® filter is an NSF listed component and is manufactured to meet NSF standards 42 and 53.  As recent at 2004, Doulton® water filters were the only ceramic filters available to be certified under both these NSF standards.
    •       Sterasyl® Silver impregnated:  Prevents Mitosis, Grow-Through or Bacteria Colonisation.  Every Doulton® ceramic filter has the Sterasyl® micro-porous depth filtration with silver permanently locked into the pore structure.  This is what makes the Doulton® filters one of the best and most reliable in the world.
    •       Carbon Core:  Carbon block (Ultracarb, Supercarb).  Granulated carbon (Sterasyl).  Activated carbon can have a surface area of 1000m2/g.  This means that 5 grams of activated carbon can have the same surface area as a football pitch.  Carbon adsorption then ensures that molecules of various chemical impurities collect on the carbon surface.  Doulton®'s carbon core removes bad taste and bad odor as well as pesticides, herbicides, organic solvents, and trihalomethanes.
    •       Ion resin:  Zeolite metal ion reduction medium.  Doulton®'s ion exchange resins selectively reduce specific heavy metals such as Lead, Copper, Mercury, while leaving the healthy minerals to flow through.
    •       Filter technology:  Doulton® is backed by a 150-year history in ceramic filtration manufacturing, with proven record of continuous product research and development.  Henry Doulton invented the ceramic filter for water filtration in 1827.
    •        Manufacturing quality:  Still 'Made in England' - manufacturing is not outsourced to different countries.  Directly imported from the U.K. into Singapore and Indo-China by Arkwater.com.
       

    Can the Doulton® filters remove chloramines?

    Chloramines (instead of chlorine) are being increasingly used in municipal water treatment plants for sterilization of water.  Potable water with residual chloramine is considered to be a problem or potential problem to many industries, particularly those related to rearing or keeping of pond fish, hatchery fish and aquarium fish.

    Catalytic activated carbon (made from bituminous coal) is able to effectively remove chloramines.  Reverse Osmosis membranes are generally unable to do so.

    Activated carbon with small pores (versus large pores) and a large surface area, is also generally able to effectively reduce chloramines, provided the flow rate of water allows sufficient contact time.  

    Doulton®'s Ultracarb Filters have been manufactured with small-pored solid carbon blocks to reduce trihalomethanes, and these small-pore-sized carbon blocks are consistent with those used to remove chloramines.

    Doulton® technical manuals indicate that Doulton®'s carbon filters (like the Supercarb and the Ultracarb) will reduce the amount of chloramine in the water but it will not remove it totally depending on the flow rate of water (A figure of 1 gallon per minute, or about 3.7 litres per minute, is often quoted as the maximum flow rate after which chloramines removal becomes ineffective because the contact time is insufficient.  The average flow rate through the Doulton® Countertop with Ultracarb, is typically around 2 litres per minute, based on the normal water pressure provided in municipal piping to residential households.  One can manually set the flow rate to be even slower just by turning the tap).

    For pressure-filters, manually adjust your source tap to run the water through the Doulton® SuperSterasyl or Ultracarb filters, to the slowest-possible constant flow.  This maximises contact time with the in-built Doulton® carbon elements to yield great-tasting water.

    Doulton® however does not currently publish test data to show how much chloramines are removed as there is not yet a widely accepted global standard for chloramine reduction.
     

    Is it expensive to maintain a Doulton® Water Purifier?

    Not at all.  

    While Distillation systems and Reverse Osmosis systems generally incur significant electrical power consumption, Arkwater.com's Doulton® water purifiers do not need electricity at all.

    The Ultracarb filter in the Countertop and Undersink models have a guaranteed performance of 2,244 litres.   The high product reliability allows the Doulton® filter to perform way beyond  these guaranteed levels.  Existing arkwater.com customers in Singapore, with 3-5 members in their households, have used the Doulton® ceramic filters for easily over 15 months.
    Doulton® ceramic is of such a high quality that it can be cleaned up to 50-100 times or more.  

     

    When do I clean the Doulton® ceramic filter element?

    When the time it takes for the water to filter through decreases to the point where it is no longer meeting your daily water needs.
    Doulton® ceramic elements may be cleaned 50 to 100 times or more.

     

    How do I clean the filter element?

    Hold the Doulton® ceramic element under clean running water while scrubbing lightly with a green scouring pad like 3M ScotchBrite pad or soft-bristled toothbrush. 
    Cleaning should be performed evenly, working from the threaded end down.

     

    How do I determine when the granular carbon in the ceramic element is exhausted?

    When bad taste and odor of the source water is no longer removed.  The good news is that the Doulton® ceramic shell will continue to remove pathogenic harmful bacteria even after the carbon is exhausted.  If your water tastes bad, you may continue to use your Berkefeld® to remove harmful bacteria, and either pre-filter or post-filter the water with an inexpensive carbon filter, such as a Brita.

     

    How do I know when to change the filter element?

    Doulton® filters are completely reliable, and will continue to remove harmful bacteria and water-borne cysts until the very end. The water-flow will simply slow down because of accumulated filtered contaminants, and when a repeated cleaning does not increase the water-flow, it is time to change the filter.  Alternatively, the ceramic element will become slightly smaller from repeated cleanings.  Eventually, the ceramic wall will wear thin and crack.  Once a crack occurs, the integrity of the filter has been lost and it must be replaced.
     

    Is it possible to reactivate or regenerate the granular carbon in the filter element once it becomes saturated with chemicals?

    In an emergency situation while out in the field, yes.  To some extent, some chemicals such as chlorine can be removed from the carbon by boiling the ceramic filter element in water for five minutes. 
    Note: To avoid cracking the ceramic shell, place the element in cool water and then bring the water to a boil.
    Never place a cool element in boiling water or a hot element in cool water.
    Exercise great caution if attempting to do this with other brands of ceramic filters.

     

    Can I prolong the need for cleaning the filter elements?

    Yes.  You can pre-filter the water through a coffee filter before pouring the water into the Berkefeld®.
    However, this is not necessary for proper functioning.

     

    What are some of the water sources I can filter through the Portable LP2 British Berkefeld® gravity model?

    Water from ponds, creeks, lakes, rivers, wells, cisterns, rain, or even water you have stored yourself can be used for drinking and cooking with peace of mind.
    No more worries about drinking water when taking the family and kids out camping in the wild.
    The LP2 is also highly reliable for disaster relief scenarios.

     

    How does the Portable LP2 Berkefeld® compare to other types of water filtration systems?

    Inline Systems: Berkefeld® works with no water pressure, while inline systems need innovative adaptation if you do not have water pressure
    Hand Pump Units: Berkefeld® requires no pumping.  Hand-pump units are great for camping, but hard to pump, not practical for long term emergencies, and have a short life span.
    Resin or Carbon-based gravity filters: Berkefeld® has a longer life span, while other resin-carbon-based gravity filters have a short life span, typically only around 250 to 1000 gallons. Some other resin compounds do not allow the healthy minerals to flow through, while Doulton®'s does.
    Ceramic-based Gravity Filters: No water pressure required, long life span of elements.  The Berkefeld® which uses four filters will produce 10,000 to 60,000 gallons of safe water before the elements need to be replaced.

     

    How do the Berkefeld® gravity models work?

    Just add water into the upper chamber.  Gravity causes the water to flow through the filters to the lower chamber.  A 4-filter system using 7" filters will produce about a gallon per hour.  Using 4 10" filters will produce about 1.25 gallons per hour.
     

    Why do the ceramic elements contain silver?  Are they safe?

    In a multilayer candle, the protective effect is even more critical because carbon is a natural growth medium for bacteria.  In carbon-only filter elements, which are commonly found, the carbon filter often ends up as being a bacteria repositary if not changed regularly.
    The silver in the Doulton® ceramic elements is a specially formulated self-sterilizing (bacteriostatic) agent.
      The result is that bacterial growth is prevented from occurring within the Sterasyl® ceramic element (which is possible with the other ceramic filter elements).  More importantly, bacterial "grow-through" is eliminated.  The silver content is about 0.07%, which is well within the allowable levels recommended by the World Health Organization and the EPA.  Because of the silver, Sterasyl® filter elements do not require sterilization after cleaning.  Oligodynamic silver in Sterasyl® is permanently locked into the pore structure of the ceramic.
      

    What types of bacteria, chemicals and metals are removed or reduced by Arkwater.com's Doulton® filters?

    • Pathogenic harmful bacteria, such as Cholera, Typhoid, Salmonella, Serratia, E.Coli, and Fecal Coliform are removed >99.99%
    • Water-borne cysts, such as Cryptosporidium Parvum and Giardia Lamblia:  100% removal (based on tests by Arizona State University)
    • Sediment: 100% removed down to 0.9 micron, >99.999% removed 0.5-0.8 microns (based on tests by Spectrum Laboratories, Minneapolis, MN)
    • Organic Chemicals, such as pesticides, herbicides, organic solvents and trihalamethanes are significantly reduced
    • Chemicals, such as chlorine, are significantly reduced
    • Dissolved heavy metals, like lead, copper, mercury, are significantly removed.

     

      What are heterotrophic bacteria?

Heterotrophic bacteria are  bacteria that do not photosynthesize - which is over 95% of all bacteria and they include both beneficial  and harmful bacteria. Bacteria are living organisms and they naturally exist everywhere because they are part of the environment.

      Some are good bacteria, for example, the probiotics and prebiotics as discovered by Nobel prize winner Eli Metchnikoff.  These include bacteria found in yogurts, cheese, yeast, and in our human stomachs which are part of the normal gut microflora such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria.  In recent years, it is becoming increasingly common for people to consume these heterotrophic bacteria as dietary supplements to health.

      Other heterotrophic bacteria are pathogenic (disease-causing). Within a water context, the presence of these pathenogenic bacteria is measured  by the amount of  Escherichia Coli commonly known as E Coli which are  found in the lower intestines. Since E Coli can only survive for a short while outside the body, their absence of presence makes them a good indicator organism for faecal contamination.   The specific measurement of  E Coli in water, (as opposd to all heterotrophic bacteria), has become the prescribed way to measure the safety of drinking water.

      Arkwater.com’s Doulton drinking water filters reliably remove more than 99.99% of pathogenic bacteria, producing potable water as a result.

 

      What is HPC (Heterotrophic Plate Count)?

HPC is a method used to measure the amount of bacteria in water. One milliliter of water is cultured on an agar plate, and the number of formed colonies is counted. This reading does not indicate the presence of pathogenic organisms; hence HPC is not used as a standard for measuring water quality. The US Environmental Protection Agency set a water benchmark of 500 cfu ml
-1 (colony-forming units per milliliter), as high concentrations of HPC bacteria can interfere with coliform analysis.

      According to Health Canada; " Rudimentary testing for heterotrophic organisms became possible with the advent of culture media in the late 1800s. By the end of the century, HPC tests were being used as indirect indicators of water safety by providing information on the treatment process -- that is, they indicated the level of removal of bacteria by filtration."   Health Canada continues, "The use of HPC as a safety indicator decreased in the 20th century with the advent of faecal-specific testing."

      One way to understand this to consider a simple human analogy.

      Within a human population there will be the large majority of good people and there maybe some bad people. The HPC is like measuring the presence of people in an area and then concluding that, since there are people,  perhaps there may be bad people within this group of people.

      Of course this is not a good method to measure bad people. There are many small communities everywhere which would claim the absence of any really bad people.

      A better way to measure bad people is to look  at the crime statistics - sort of like what the E Coli tests are about.  Which is why HPC has ceased to be used as an indicator for water safety just as a population census is not  used to find criminals.

      In a similar way, one can explain the EPA's reason for the establishment of their HPC level through another  analogy. The larger the population, the harder it will be to find the bad elements within that population with certainty.

      Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) and gastrointestinal illness)

      According to the World Health organisation, a study was conducted among Navy families in  Connecticut , USA (Calderon 1988)  who were randomly assigned either a blank filter or a granulated activated carbon (GAC) filter. The study covered over 600 person years. There was regular monitoring of water quality and human health.

      Water from taps fitted with GAC filters had substantially higher heterotroph counts (mean > 1000 cfu/ml) compared with unfiltered water (mean 92 cfu/ml).  

      However, at the end of the study, there was no statistical difference between people receiving water with high HPC and unfiltered water (low HPC) .

      A futher study was conducted in 1991 and came to the same conclusion (Calderon and Mood 1991)

A further trial was conducted by Payment in 1997 (Payment 1997) with 4 groups of people; those drinking tap water, those whose tap was left running so the water was  wasted, those given bottled plant effluent water and those given plant effluent water further treated by reverse osmosis (RO).  

In the 2 groups using bottled plant effluent water, there was significantly higher HPC. Despite this, the gastrointestinal illness rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups. With regard to the 2 “taps” groups, the illness rate in the group with continual running water tap (lower HPC) was actually higher.

The Wolrd Health organisation concludes that the studies demonstrate there is no association between counts of HPC bacteria and gastrointestinal illness in humans.

Do water filtration systems breed Heterotrophic bacteria?

All water filtrations systems (from coffee filters to RO membranes) will breed some form of heterotrophic bacteria, and those with carbon filters (to remove chlorination) may be especially prone to do so.
 Activated carbon with its huge surface area holds bacteria and may trap potential growth substrates; hence as water passes through it, bacteria may also be released.

     However, because activated carbon is a chlorine adsorber, there is a disinfection mechanism because chlorine kills bacteria and suppresses bacterial growth; which is why it is introduced into the municipal water supply.  So as the activated carbon extracts the chlorine from the water, there is a suppression of the bacterial growth.

     However, should the influent water not be chlorinated as in some countries, the activated carbon will  breed heterotrophic bacteria. Nevertheless, this is still not an issue because the  activated carbon is after the ceramic filter,  the benign bacteria that inhabit the activated carbon arrive there through the unavoidable contact with the environment. But  pathenogenic bacteria that would come through fecal copntamination of the water supply are blocked by the filter.

    Therefore, where there isn't a chlorinated municipal supply,  the HPC results could certainly be higher after passing through the filter...

     Arkwater's water purification systems always provide significant (99.99%) reduction of microbial pathogens even in cases where tje HPC measurement may even show an increase relative to the filtered water.  HPC measurements do not correlate to the concentration of pathogenic bacteria., i.e. the safety of the water.  

     In fact, some studies suggest that residual HPC bacteria may demonstrate a protective effect, by competing with pathogenic bacteria. This effect is used in slow sand filters, where the Schmutzdecke, a biologically active film formed on the surface of the sand filter and containing a massive amount of heterotrophic bacteria,  is used to detroy pathenogenic bacteria.

 

     Does water with a high concentration of HPC bacteria present any concern to health?

     Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) was the earliest  tool of  bacteriology starting in the late 19th century, but by the mid 20th century, science had advanced to a point where it was realised that although it could be used as a proxy indicator, a high plate count was not an indication of the safety of water.

     The United Kingdom Ministry of Health provided formal guidance on the bacteriological examination on water supplies.that  was known as "Report 71"  and according to the World Health organisation,  by the 5th edition published in 1982,  "all reference to the use of HPC to potentially  indicate faecal contamination had been dropped"

      Even commercial bottled water has been found to contain high levels of heterotrophic bacteria..  These reach a HPC bacterial count of  7300 cfu/ml (colony forming units per millilitre). Even famous brands , contain some level of "colony forming units"

     Arkwater water filtration removes over 99.99% of harmful microbial pathogens, meaning that even if there is a high HPC measurement, the water is perfectly safe to drink. Arkwater or any filtration systems with activated carbon  will show HPC counts.

     Sterile water stored in sterile packages like those used in intravenous drips in hospitals, are free of HPC bacteria.  Other foodstuffs often have an extremely high HPC measurement; for example, a measurement taken from carrots and lettuce gave a reading of about 1,000,000 cfu ml-1.

     According to the 2003 World Health Organisation Expert Consensus on HPC and Drinking Water Safety, there is no evidence that HPC values alone directly relate to health risk.

 

      How can HPC bacteria be inactivated or removed completely from water?

Although the kind of Heterotrophic bacteria found in filtered water are not harmful and may even be benign, there could be a desire to drink water with no bacteria in it if possible.

       If heterotrophic bacteria are totally undesired, consumers may boil or UV steralise water after filtration.  In this case, it is better to boil the water immediately before drinking, as water left to stand may also begin to breed heterotrophic bacteria. Normal tap water left overnight will show high HPC.

     The age-old tradition of boiling drinking water kills or otherwise inactivates microbial pathogens, but the water must be boiled for at least ten minutes to be considered sterile.  However, boiling unfiltered water does not remove chemical toxins and in fact, can concentrate these.

      Chlorine is a disinfectant and when added to water, it kills bacteria.  Chlorine however may sometimes not be an effective treatment against Giardia cysts. Alternatively, irradiation by ultraviolet light destroys DNA, hence killing bacteria, viruses, and any pathogens.

      However, none of these methods of boiling, chlorination or irradiation, will remove suspended particles or dissolved chemicals (chlorine, pesticides) or dissolved heavy metals (copper, lead), and thus simple boiling may still produce water undesirable for drinking.

Reliable water filtration which is effective against pathogenic bacteria, on its own, can render water safe for consumption, and does not need to be supplanted by either boiling, chlorination or UV.

      For Arkwater filtration systems, if HPC is an issue, the customers can opt for a plain ceramic filter on its own without activated carbon . However, this will mean that chlorine and other harmful chemicals like Trihalomethanes will not be removed. An option to deal with that would be  to have a multistage filter with the activated carbon before the ceramic filter.

     This is done in Arkwater's rural and community systems (RS6 and CS4 systems) - multistage systems that have activated carbon before the microfiltration stage and utilise post filter UV steralisation.

      Arkwater.com can provide UV steralisation if required. Optional activated carbon / nano silver cartridges may be used to minmise HPC.

     

    Will Doulton be around in 5,10, or more years' time, for me to get spare parts for the Doulton® purifier?

    You can trust Doulton®.  

    Doulton first entered the water filtration business serving the industrial sector.  Doulton® now brings its advanced technology to residential homes.

    Doulton®'s filter technology has been time-tested and proven over 150 years of continuous product research and development since 1827 when Henry Doulton first created ceramic filters to remove harmful bacteria from drinking water.

    Worldwide, Doulton® is one of the most reliable and trusted brand.  Doulton® filters are not only being used by families in residential homes, it is also used by bottling companies, hospitals, clinics, and many other industrial companies for water filtration processes.

    Doulton® is also used by the International Red Cross, Unicef, Save the Children, embassies and field workers in over 150 countries worldwide.

    Warranty:  All British Berkefeld® and Doulton® filter housings have a one-year warranty against factory defects.  As is the market practice, this factory guarantee is invalid for damage, breakage, spoilage, etc. caused by poor handling.

    Arkwater.com's management has toured the Doulton® factory in England.

    Product authenticity:  
    Doulton® & British Berkefeld® products are imported directly from England by
    Arkwater.com.

     

 

  

 
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